We might be using playmats, but some of the students appear to have poor road habits already ingrained as you can see in this video taken by two students in S2 who are currently completing the Road Safety 1 topic. We are looking at speed, distance, time, calculations, using calculators, and laying out questions correctly.

## Tart Ma Cart

This is the start of the Tart Ma Cart material put together by Gregor Steele from SSERC and spread by Brian Redman. Thanks guys.

The pupil instructions are given in the sheet and are copied below.

Tart Ma Cart2

Tart Ma Cart Pupil Instructions

Style and Safety

You have probably seen TV shows where an ordinary car is fitted with an amazing body kit and a fancy stereo before being given a stunning paint job.

• Your group’s task is to take an ordinary physics trolley and fit it with a bumper or crumple zone to make it safer in a collision. You can make it stylish, but safety is more important!
• You will be given a choice of materials plus card and sticky tape.
• Your design must be able to be fixed to the front of the test trolley with Blu-Tac.
• It should not add more than 2 cm to the length of your trolley.
• It must not have a large effect on the performance of the trolley.
• Your design will be tested. The test will measure the deceleration of the vehicle in a head-on collision.

Do you think a large or small deceleration will be best in a collision? (Should the change of speed in the collision happen quickly or slowly?)

Tart Ma Cart

Tart Ma Cart teacherguide

Tart Ma Cart technicianguide

## Updated materials

Thanks to Pete Monteith of Police Scotland a.k.a. Calculator Pete (as he still has his calculator from school, and in those days there was no direct algebraic logic) for these updated pdf files of the plans. He’s done so much behind the scenes for this project and so many people owe him so much. THANKS from Mrs Physics (who chucked out her school calculator last year as it was never used)

School pedestrian no dimensions

School pedestrian

School plan 2 cars

School plan no dimensions 2 cars

## 2017 where did we go?

I am a little out of date, so ought to spend sometime catching up on where we’ve been with our Road Safety Project. I’ve been rather busy doing and had no time to get all these things up to date.

2017 continued to see our work displayed wider afield.

In January Mrs Physics took to Reading to be part of the ASE Conference as part of the Science on Stage UK delegation.

# Science on Stage Debrecen Hungary

### Tuesday 27th June- 4th July 2017

Your Ideas Your Initiative have hosted many of our resources that we’ve used. We are grateful to Renault for hosting these, although several are now out of date.

safety-mobility-for-all.com/s3

safety-mobility-for-all.com/s1

safety-mobility-for-all.com/s5

We published the work in CATALYST magazine too.

36331-Catalyst_25_2_597

catalyst_magazine.net

This is the link to our work that was submitted by the students, particularly Leelah and Laura. This received a gold award by the Royal Society and 11 of us went back to the Summer Science Exhibition 2015 to receive a Science Book each. Thanks to the Royal Society for their wonderful support.

## Safe Winter Drive Campaign 26th November 2016

Thank you to all those who answered the questionnaire on Winter Driving.

http://www.qdpservices.com/online/OLI_Questionnaire.asp?SID=10001-1210491-00000

21st September European Day Without A Road Death- wonderful news. No deaths on D&G roads on 21st September 2016. Let’s keep it this way.

Support this event! But don’t drive on this side of the Road in the UK!

Below are the pictures of our Road Safety Event, which involved Lockerbie Academy students, Police Scotland and sponsorship from Tesco Lockerbie and Brake. The students had an amazing day and really built up their confidence and team skills. Everyone of them now feels confident that they could check a car for safe winter driving. One commented that it only felt like 2 hours and not 5. Inspector Campbell Moffat and his team taught the students in a lovely way, building up their confidence and ensuring that they would complete the checks adequately. We would especially like to say a great big thank you to Tesco Lockerbie. Not only did they provide de-icer, sponges and screenwash, but they also gave up a large chunk of their car park, as not many towns folk were up the Academy end. Tesco were great hosts and even provided a top up of the screen wash, for which we and the drivers were grateful. We will tweak our speeches to the driver, but would be happy to do winter checks again. Thank you so much. The Road Safety message continues to be reiterated at Lockerbie Academy.

As part of Lockerbie Academy’s continued drive and commitment to road safety we have again teamed up with Police Scotland through Inspector Campbell Moffat and Sergeant Paul Dodds to bring a “Winter Safe Drive” Campaign to Lockerbie Academy and everyone is invited, whether you own a car or not. This is a FREE event, and the Police and pupils will be on hand, with some school staff to answer questions on safe winter driving, advise you on what to have in your car in case of breakdown, or being stuck due to a traffic jam or bad weather and to complete car safety checks. This is an advisory event, and hopefully you and your car will leave better prepared for the winter driving ahead.

A new team of Road Safety students have been busy preparing for the event making banners, posters and learning about safe driving. The questionnaire, which was started a couple of years ago has been re-launched and we hope to help to make drivers in Dumfries and Galloway feel more confident and be more prepared and have their cars ready for the winter..

We believe at Lockerbie Academy that young people can make a huge difference to road safety. They make passionate, effective campaigners who understand the devastation road crashes cause to young lives. They can help prevent casualties, and make their communities safer and greener, by speaking out for road safety and sustainable transport, and making and encouraging responsible decisions within their peer group.

We will have copies of the Brake Pledge for safer driving, which you can sign if you feel that you want to add your name to the campaign. There will be lots of free items and a chance to ensure that you have a clean windscreen and lights, that your lights are fully working, screenwash is topped up and tyres are at the right pressure. We hope to be selling additional items at cost price.

Please come and support us for this event, even if the weather is bad, we will be waiting to help you out. Bring your cars to the Lockerbie Academy car park, and even if you are a non driver, or don’t have a car, there will also be helpful advice for pedestrians as well.
##### THE EVENT TOOK PLACE ON SATURDAY 26TH NOVEMBER BETWEEN 10AM AND 3PM. Approximately 80 vehicles were checked.

Thanks to Inspector Campbell Moffat and his team for making this event so enjoyable and educational for our students. They will be great ambassadors for Road Safety.

# Make a difference to road safety: Make the Brake Pledge

Brake’s vision is a world where streets are pleasant, unpolluted, and safe for everyone to use freely.

To help us get there, everyone can sign our Pledge, whether you are a driver or not. The Pledge calls for people to drive less and, if they do drive, to do everything they can to protect themselves and the people around them. Scroll down to read the Pledge

http://www.brake.org.uk/pledge

### Slow

Drivers – I’ll stay under limits, and slow down to 20mph around schools, homes and shops to protect others. I’ll slow right down for bends, brows and bad weather, and avoid overtaking.
Everyone – I’ll speak out for slowing down and help drivers understand that the slower they drive, the more chance they have of avoiding a crash and saving a life.

### Sober

Drivers – I’ll never drive after drinking any alcohol or drugs – not a drop, not a drag.
Everyone – I’ll plan ahead to make sure I, and anyone I’m with, can get home safely and I’ll never get a lift with drink/drug drivers. I’ll speak out if someone’s about to drive on drink or drugs.

### Secure

Drivers – I’ll make sure everyone in my vehicle is belted up on every journey, and kids smaller than 150cm are in a proper child restraint. I’ll choose the safest vehicle I can and ensure it’s maintained.
Everyone – I’ll belt up on every journey, and make sure friends and family do too.

### Silent

Drivers – I’ll never take or make calls, read or type when driving. I’ll put communication devices out of reach, and stay focused.
Everyone – I’ll never chat on the phone to someone else who’s driving.

### Sharp

Drivers – I’ll stay focussed on safe driving. I’ll take regular breaks and never drive if I’m tired, stressed or on medication that affects driving. I’ll

## The Physics of Road Safety.

With the changes to the Scottish School Curriculum it was decided to make mechanics courses applicable to all students. Living in a rural area many students learn to drive on farms and believe they have little to learn when they begin driving on roads. There have been many fatalities in our Region; even one of these fatalities is prevented then the work would have been worthwhile. We cover work for all ages from 11-18 year of age.

With some basic equipment students can be taught Physics through Road Safety at all levels.

Figure 1: An example of a playmat for students to measure distance and time and calculate average speed. Also used for instantaneous speed and velocity.

Figure 2: students finding average and instantaneous speeds with playmats.

I use playmats and toy cars for the 11year olds. Students use string and a stopwatch and calculate the average speed to drive a predetermined route around the playmat. Already potential driver attitudes are visible. Some students race around the track as fast as possible just trying to get the fastest average speed, other meticulously obey road rules, even making up indicator sounds at the junctions. We then discuss speed and its role in many road traffic incidents. This leads nicely into instantaneous speed and the difference between the two. Using light gates and interfaces we calculate the instantaneous speed as students drive vehicles along a straight stretch of the road. We discuss the similarities between this and the traffic cameras. If playmats are too expensive a route can always be marked out on paper or chalk across the floor or table.

We then use Fifex reaction timers to introduce the idea of reaction time and how this affects the measurement of instantaneous speed. There are many online games, many related to driving that can also be used to check the students’ reaction times.

We then play a game with the reaction timers called Chicken Run. Using the pre-programmed reaction timers students estimate a virtual drivers’ stopping distance under various conditions and the effects of not concentrating on the likelihood of an accident. Two “drivers” use a steering wheel from a games consul to “drive” the vehicle. The road conditions and the speed of the car are set on the reaction timers. The rest of the students estimate the stopping distance; trying to choose a value as close to the stopping distance as possible without being “hit”. The drivers start by hitting the green start button and when the red light stops flashing the student has to hit the stop button and the reaction time, thinking and braking distance are displayed on the screen. The students calculate the stopping distances by adding the thinking and braking distance.  We start off at a low speed on a dry road and gradually increase the speed, road conditions and distractions. For example a student might select to drive at 30 mph in the dry without distractions. Initially the students have little idea of the stopping distance, and in the first few rounds most are hit by the driver.  This game has some serious messages, despite being fun. By dividing the class into two groups and having two drivers it adds to the fun, and can demonstrate to students how some drivers might “hit” you but others not. We look at the effects of texting, music distractions and road conditions. It is important to mark out these stopping distances  as students have no concept of distances. If the reaction timers are too expensive then a small computer programme could manage the same calculations and the students can run the same tests. The company make a version with foot pedals so that it is more realistic to find the impact of drinking from a bottle and texting whilst driving.

Figure 3: Fifex Reaction Timer for measuring reaction times and recording thinking, braking and stopping distances.

Figure 4: Driver playing Chicken Run

Figure 5: Two drivers playing chicken run

Obviously this device is programmed for the UK market and has the speed in miles per hour, but a version is available in km/h. Students are shocked at how long it takes a car to stop when being driven at the speed limit in icy conditions.

It is not too big a leap to introduce velocity and the difference between speed and velocity. As the playmats are 2D it is easy to get students to realise the difference between how far they’ve travelled (distance) and how far they are from the start as the crow flies (displacement). This helps explain why v is the symbol for speed. Many students now have a compass on their phones and the angle or bearing can be taken to indicate the direction of the vector.  There are various routes through the course after speed is completed. Students can be taught about forces and the effect of collision. The EU car safety scheme can be discussed culminating in students trying to build a safety device for the car to reduce the forces received during a crash. Generally, despite all the knowledge, students tend to produce something that bounces rather than crumples resulting in many smaller but potentially damaging forces on the passengers. We call this exercise “Tart Ma Kart”, based on the TV show “Pimp My Ride”.  Acceleration can also be fitted into the Road Safety theme and can include choosing a car with a five star safety rating and choosing a car with a high acceleration.

At the end of these activities the students work in the hall where a 1/3 scaled model of a road traffic incident is laid out. We were sponsored to be able to source the materials for this, but with a little imagination, or support from students this could be done with cardboard boxes or borrow from the students if they might have had a ride on car.

Students secure the scene and formulate a hypothesis for what occurred. They are given two witness statements and have to note the similarities and disagreements. Witness statements are not used in any meaningful way in a road incident as they are so unreliable. A book of information is given to the students with details of the road surface and the differences between run under and run over and a talk about the four stages of braking. The scenario is based on a real local road incident and this makes it poignant for the students.

Students measure out the tyre makes and use the equations  to discover the speed the pedestrian was hit, the initial speed of the car when the tyre marks were laid down on the road and what would have happened if the car had been driving at or below the speed limit.

Figure 6: Layout of part of the scene

Figure 7: Police reconstruction of the scene.

There is a great sense of achievement when the students finally work out what happened and get the correct answer. Many need a little prompting but the satisfaction is immense. We were lucky enough to have the police in when we were completing this task but it isn’t necessary. It just adds to the knowledge and experience that can be given to the students and allows careers advice to be given.

The senior students receive a talk by a Road Crash Investigator around a serious incident occurring in 2006. The police discuss the evidence and explain how the timeline of what occurred can be built up from the evidence of the scene. The students are then given the age and profile of those who caused the accident. The Road Investigator then provides details of the people causing the fatalities and it is a shock to them all. The final task is for the students to use their knowledge of impulse, conservation of momentum and equations of motion to look at two A1 plots of road incidents and being asked to use the evidence to find out what happened.

Figure 8: The Glen, one of the worst road crashes in Dumfries and Galloway, and caused by young drivers

Figure 9: Senior Students use an A1 plot to determine the cause of a road traffic incident.

All students involved in the work benefitted to some extent and it engaged students who might otherwise think Physics is not for them. Much of the work can be adapted for local situations and local police road crash investigators might be able to provide more examples of local incidents that can be used. The two examples that we have been given can easily be adjusted to show drivers on the other side of the road or travelling at local speed limits.

Figure 10: The Glen – one of the worst ever road traffic collisions in our Region and caused by young drivers.

Figure 11: Our work was showcased at the 2014 Royal Society Summer Science Exhibition

## References:

Lower school

Middle School

### Reaction Times

http://www.driveractive.com/tips/reaction.html

http://www.humanbenchmark.com/tests/reactiontime/

http://www.moosezone.co.uk/reaction-game.htm

https://www.brianmac.co.uk/rulerdrop.htm

http://www.planet-science.com/categories/under-11s/our-bodies/2011/01/catch-the-ruler!.aspx

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/south_of_scotland/7252425.stm

### Fifex Reaction Timers

http://www.fifex.co.uk/

http://www.fifex.co.uk/portfolio_item.php?ID=02&type=product

## Be A Campaigner

This is the information from the BRAKE website

Lockerbie Academy will be working to increase awareness during ROAD SAFETY WEEK

# Young people and road safety

Less than one in 12 licence holders is under 25, yet one in five fatal and serious injury crashes involve a driver this age. Often the victims are young people themselves: road crashes are the biggest killer of young people in the UK and worldwide.

At the same time, young people can make a huge difference to road safety. They often make passionate, effective campaigners who understand the devastation road crashes cause to young lives. They can help prevent casualties, and make their communities safer and greener, by speaking out for road safety and sustainable transport, and making and encouraging responsible decisions within their peer group.

If you teach or work with young people, you can help them understand the issues around road safety and sustainable travel, make safe and sustainable choices, and speak out for responsible road use. Use our online resources including posters, interactive tools and videos, or order our hard copy resources including posters, leaflets and a DVD.

The resources are ideal for youth leaders, secondary schools and colleges, emergency services professionals and driving instructors. Teachers can also make use of our guide to teaching road safety and sign up to our termly educator bulletin.

If you’re a young person wanting to make a difference, stand up for safe and sustainable travel by:

• getting the info you need from our resources and fact and advice pages for young people.
• making the Brake Pledge to show your support for safe and sustainable streets.
• using the Pledge to lead a campaign to raise awareness in your school, college or community.
• registering to be part of Road Safety Week in November.
• fundraising for us in your school, college or community.

# Project Edward Pledge

I’ve signed the pledge- can you? Notice you don’t need to be a driver

Can you sign the pledge?

##### I promise that I will:
• Remind my family, friends and colleagues to take extra care on the roads.
• Put my lights on for safety.
• Drive as safely as I can and follow the rules when behind the wheel or riding a motorbike or bicycle.
• Be extra vigilant and attentive to the needs of pedestrians, cyclists, children, older people and horse riders.
• Drive at speeds that are both legal and safe.
• Carry out proper safety checks on my tyres.
• Pay particular attention when driving near schools, and where there are lots children
• Never drive after drinking alcohol or taking drugs/medicines that could impair safety.
• Look as far ahead as possible and not tailgate other drivers
• Always wear my seat belt and ensure that everyone with me wears theirs.
• Not use my mobile phone while driving.
• Ensuring I am not distracted by anything inside or outside the car, or inside my head.
• Set a good example to my passengers by driving calmly and safely.

##### Let’s work together to reduce death and serious injury on Europe’s roads…
• www.tispol.org/edward #ProjectEdward

## Be a Crash Test Investigator Materials

Below are the resources for the crash simulation part of the Road safety course. For lower school road safety work please see the BGE page of the website www.mrsphysics.co.uk/bge and click on the road safety section.

Hope you find the materials useful and I’ll tidy them up as soon as I can. I’ve also a few more items to upload

A photo of the set up in the assembly Hall. Obviously this can be adapted for your own use, or reflected for those who drive on the right.

car pedestrian plan

Pupil Sheets word version

Thanks to Julian Gillespie for producing a poster for the ASE Conference.

### Witness Statements

witness statements word version

### Signs

Signs SiS1 word version

Signs

Calculation carsA B[2] word version

Calculations pedestrian[2] word version

Results2 pdf

## Where It All Began!

It is hard to say where the Road Safety Initiative began and each time I think of a starting point I am reminded of something else we did previously. I currently believe the starting point was with Brian Redman and Gregor Steele and their “Tart Ma Kart”, aka “Pimp my ride copyright!”

In the Tart Ma Kart project (supported from a grant from the Institute of Physics) students had to produce and design a crumple zone for the front of the car using special high-tech materials. Most students chose materials that would actually make the crash worse, as they caused bouncing. Only one group made a successful crumple zone.

The students then discussed their thoughts on this experience and created an informational display and presentation to share with the community. They researched safe cars and learned about the different important safety features. In the presentation, they included their findings from the many discussions they have had on the topic of safe cars. All of this aimed to share a very important message – that the type of car you drive could affect whether you survive an accident, so choose carefully!

I think after this Mrs Physics did the Summer School at SSERC (highly recommended) and we were given a Fifex Reaction Timer.

Then came the Magnox grant and the idea of making all of our dynamics and mechanics relate to Road Safety (see separate post), and finally came the work with the Road Policing Department, under Inspector Neil Hewitson.

Finally over lots of cups of tea and coffee and too many cakes, we came up with Be A Road Crash Investigator, and the A1 boards for the Higher Physics groups.

I am sure we’re not finished there. The next group of Road Safety officers in School want to educate family and friends on Safe Driving…. so watch this space!