Changes in AH from 2019

I am grateful to Ms K Ward from George Heriot’s School for trawling through the new and old curriculum and recorded the changes. Thanks to her for also allowing me to reproduce it here.

Assessment

Old assessment: 100 mark question paper, 30 mark project, plus pass all the units

New assessment: 155 mark question paper, scaled to 120, 40 mark project (hence project is 25%)

Changes to content:

The content is no longer divided into ‘mandatory course key areas’, ‘suggested learning activities’, and ‘exemplification of key areas’.  There is simply a list of the course contents.

Where the wording has changed but I don’t see any real difference, I have said ‘no change’. 

RMA

Kinematic relationships – no change

Angular motion – derivation of centripetal acceleration equation is gone

Rotational dynamics – no change

Gravitation

–       ‘Conversion between astronomical units (AU) and metres and between light-years (ly) and metres’ – is new

–       ‘Consideration of the energy required by a satellite to move from one orbit to another’ – is gone

General Relativity

–       ‘Knowledge that the escape velocity from the event horizon of a black hole is equal to the speed of light’ – is new

Stellar physics
has changed to

Specific example of  a p-p chain is now given

Hertzprung-Russell section is rewritten more clearly.

Quanta and Waves

Introduction to quantum theory – no change

Particles from space

–       ‘Knowledge of the interaction of the solar wind with Earth’s magnetic field’ – is gone.  New document only mentions composition of solar wind.  Helical motion of charged particles is still there though, so it might not really matter.

Simple harmonic motion (SHM)– no change

Waves – no change

Interference

Relationship for interference due to division of amplitude is now specified, 
opd=mλ or (m+1/2) λ where m=0,1,2…

Polarisation – no change

Electromagnetism

Fields

–       ‘Knowledge of Millikan’s experimental method for determining the charge on an electron’ – this was in ‘exemplification’ before but is now specifically required knowledge

–       ‘Comparison of gravitational, electrostatic, magnetic, and nuclear forces in terms of their relative strength and range’ – the words in bold are new

Circuits

–       ‘Knowledge that, in an RC circuit, an uncharged capacitor can be considered to be fully

charged after a time approximately equal to 5τ.  Knowledge that, in an RC circuit, a fully charged capacitor can be considered to be fully discharged after a time approximately equal to 5τ.’ – is new

Electromagnetic radiation– no change

Uncertainties

Knowledge and use of appropriate units, prefixes and scientific notation
Data analysis

–       ‘Absolute uncertainty should normally be rounded to one significant figure. In some instances, a second significant figure may be retained.’ – the words in bold are new.  It does not specify the instances in which a second figure may be retained.

–       ‘Knowledge that, when uncertainties in a single measurement are combined, an uncertainty can be ignored if it is less than one third of one of the other uncertainties in the measurement’ – is new

–       ‘Knowledge that, when uncertainties in measured values are combined, a fractional/percentage uncertainty in a measured value can be ignored if it is less than one third of the fractional/percentage uncertainty in another measured value’ – is new

–       The equation for the uncertainty in a value raised to a power is now given:

Evaluation and significance of experimental uncertainties

–       This short section is new

SHM Practicals

The AH today were working in 3 groups to research via practicals and notes about SHM. The task is given below. Well done to Morford and Hodgson who created the following from their practical, with very little assistance. Their results were so good I thought I’d share them.

Mr Morford wrote
“These graphs are from our recent experiment to determine the effect of damping on an oscillating mass. A mass was hung from a spring over an Alba Ranger ultrasound device. We then analysed our measurements using excel and graphed our results to find the decay due to damping.”

Morford & Hodgson (2019)
Check out the great phase lag and the obvious proof of SHM showing a is proportional to -ky
The period isn’t constant because the spring started moving with horizontal motion but the amplitude certainly deteriorated
I’ll need to check this….but it looks good!

This was the task for the class and my thanks to the IoP for their Practical Physics lessons and to the other places referenced for some great practical techniques. I will neaten this post later, but I promised Morford and Hodgson that I would post tonight!

Hopefully I can collate the rest of the groups information soon.

By the end of the lesson you should……

  • You to have the spring constant for two of the springs by two different methods.
  • A graph of d v t, v v t, and a v t
  • A value of the period of spring for various masses
  • Discovered the effect of amplitude on the period Found the effect of damping (so find out what that is)

https://www.webassign.net/question_assets/ncsucalcphysmechl3/lab_7_1/manual.html

http://www.dartmouth.edu/~physics/labs/descriptions/spring.mass.oscillator/spring.mass.oscillator.writeup.pdf

https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/undergraduate/preparing-for-university/stem/Physics/stem-legacy-SHM.aspx

https://www.cyberphysics.co.uk/topics/shm/springs.htm

http://practicalphysics.org/investigating-mass-spring-oscillator.html

Investigating a mass-on-spring oscillator

Demonstration

A mass suspended on a spring will oscillate after being displaced. The period of oscillation is affected by the amount of mass and the stiffness of the spring. This experiment allows the period, displacement, velocity and acceleration to be investigated by datalogging the output from a motion sensor. It is an example of simple harmonic motion.


Analysis 
Measurement of period 
Period and Amplitude Observe that the period appears to be independent of amplitude. 
 
Effect of mass 
A straight line is the usual result, showing that the period squared is proportional to the mass. 
 
Velocity and acceleration 
A plot of the resulting data shows a ‘velocity vs. time’ graph. Note that the new graph is also sinusoidal. However, compared with the ‘distance vs. time’ graph, there is a phase difference – the velocity is a maximum when the displacement is zero, and vice versa. 
 
A similar gradient calculation based on the ‘velocity vs. time’ graph yields an ‘acceleration vs. time’ graph. Comparing this with the original ‘distance vs. time’ graph shows a phase difference of 180°. This indicates that the acceleration is always opposite in direction to the displacement. Teaching notes

Aim 
To find the force constant of a helical spring by plotting a graph between load and extension.

Aim: To find the effect of damping on an oscillating spring

Aim: To find the effect of mass on an oscillating spring

Aim: To use the formula for an oscillating spring to find m or k etc

Electricity

Whoops I can’t find any electricity posts

PhysicsElectromagnetismAH_tcm4-726384

ah electromagnetism summary notes 2013

ah electromagnetism problems 2013

AH (Electrical Phenomena)

Unit 3 – 1 Fields

CircuitsNotes4

Here is a great little video on Lenz’ Law called Michael’s Toys

Quantity, Symbol, Unit and Unit Symbol

I’ve put together, with Mrs Mac’s help, a document with quantity, symbol, unit and unit symbol so that you know the meaning of the terms in the Relationships Sheet. It is in EXCEL so that you can sort it by course, quantity or symbol.

Quantity, Symbol, Units the excel sheet

Quantity, Symbol, Units a pdf sheet sorted by course and then alphabetical by quantity.

This is the same information in readily available Tablepress form. If you click on the Higher tab at the top it should sort by terms that you need in alphabetical order, or search for a term. Let me know if I’ve missed any.

Quantity, Symbol, Unit, Unit, Symbol N5-AH.

NHAPhysical Quantity symUnitUnit Abb.
5absorbed dose D gray Gy
5absorbed dose rate H (dot)gray per second gray per hour gray per year Gys -1 Gyh -1 Gyy -1
567acceleration a metre per second per second m s -2
567acceleration due to gravity g metre per second per second m s -2
5activity A becquerel Bq
567amplitude A metre m
567angle θ degree °
567area A square metre m 2
567average speedv (bar)metre per second m s -1
567average velocity v (bar)metre per second m s -1
567change of speed ∆v metre per second m s -1
567change of velocity ∆v metre per second m s -1
5count rate - counts per second (counts per minute) -
567current I ampere A
567displacement s metre m
567distance dmetre, light year m , ly
567distance, depth, height d or h metre m
5effective dose H sievert Sv
567electric charge Q coulomb C
567electric charge Q or q coulomb C
567electric current I ampere A
567energy E joule J
5equivalent dose H sievert Sv
5equivalent dose rate H (dot)sievert per second sievert per hour sievert per year Svs -1 Svh -1 Svy -1
567final velocity v metre per second m s -1
567force F newton N
567force, tension, upthrust, thrustF newton N
567frequency f hertz Hz
567gravitational field strength g newton per kilogram N kg -1
567gravitational potential energy E pjoule J
5half-life t 1/2 second (minute, hour, day, year) s
56heat energy Eh joule J
567height, depth h metre m
567initial speed u metre per second m/s
567initial velocity u metre per second m s -1
567kinetic energy Ek joule J
567length l metre m
567mass m kilogram kg
5number of nuclei decayingN - -
567period T second s
567potential difference V volt V
567potential energy Ep joule J
567power P watt W
567pressure P or p pascal Pa
5radiation weighting factor wR- -
567radius r metre m
567resistance R ohm Ω
567specific heat capacity c joule per kilogram per degree Celsius Jkg-1 °C -1
56specific latent heat l joule per kilogram Jkg -1
567speed of light in a vacuum c metre per second m s -1
567speed, final speed v metre per second ms -1
567speed, velocity, final velocity v metre per second m s-1
567supply voltage Vsvolt V
567temperature T degree Celsius °C
567temperature T kelvin K
567time t second s
567total resistance Rohm Ω
567voltage V volt V
567voltage, potential difference V volt V
567volume V cubic metre m3
567weight W newton N
567work done W or E Wjoule J
7angle θ radian rad
7angular acceleration aradian per second per second rad s -2
7angular displacement θ radian rad
7angular frequency ω radian per second rad s -1
7angular momentum L kilogram metre squared per second kg m2 s -1
7angular velocity,
final angular velocity
ω radian per second rad s-1
7apparent brightnessbWatts per square metreWm-2
7back emfevolt V
67capacitance C farad F
7capacitive reactance Xcohm W
6critical angle θc degree °
density ρ kilogram per cubic metre kg m-3
7displacement s or x or y metre m
efficiency η - -
67electric field strength E newton per coulomb
volts per metre
N C -1
Vm -1
7electrical potential V volt V
67electromotive force (e.m.f) E or ε volt V
6energy level E 1 , E 2 , etcjoule J
feedback resistance Rfohm Ω
focal length of a lens f metre m
6frequency of source fs hertz Hz
67fringe separation ∆x metre m
67grating to screen distance D metre m
7gravitational potential U or V joule per kilogram J kg-1
half-value thickness T1/2 metre m
67impulse (∆p) newton second
kilogram metre per second
Ns
kgms-1
7induced e.m.f. E or ε volt V
7inductor reactanceXLohm W
7initial angular velocity ω oradian per second rad s-1
input energy E ijoule J
input power Piwatt W
input voltage V 1 or V2 volt V
input voltage V ivolt V
6internal resistance r ohm Ω
67irradiance I watt per square metre W m-1
7luminoscityLWattW
7magnetic induction B tesla T
7moment of inertia I kilogram metre squared kg m2
67momentum p kilogram metre per second kg m s-1
6number of photons per second per cross sectional area N - -
number of turns on primary coil n p- -
number of turns on secondary coil n s- -
6observed wavelengthλ observedmetrem
output energy E o joule J
output power P owatt W
output voltage V o volt V
6peak current Ipeak ampere A
6peak voltage V peak volt V
7phase angle Φ radian rad
67Planck’s constant h joule second Js
7polarising angle
(Brewster’s angle)
i pdegree ̊
power (of a lens) P dioptre D
power gain Pgain - -
7Power per unit areaWatts per square metreWm-2
primary current I p ampere A
primary voltage Vpvolt V
7radial acceleration ar metre per second per second m s-2
6redshiftz--
67refractive index n - -
6relativistic lengthl'metrem
6relativistic timet'seconds
rest mass mo kilogram kg
6rest wavelengthλrestmetrem
6root mean square current I rmsampere A
6root mean square voltage Vrmsvolt V
7rotational kinetic energy Erotjoule J
7schwarzchild radiusrSchwarzchildmetrem
secondary current Is ampere A
secondary voltage Vsvolt V
7self-inductance L henry H
67slit separation d metre m
7tangential acceleration atmetre per second per second m s-2
6threshold frequency fohertz Hz
7time constanttseconds
7torque Τ newton metre Nm
7uncertainty in Energy∆E jouleJ
7uncertainty in momentum∆px kilogram metre per second kgms-1
7uncertainty in position∆x metre m
7uncertainty in time∆t seconds
6velocity of observer vometre per second m s-1
6velocity of source vsmetre per second m s-1
voltage gain - - -
voltage gain Ao or V gain - -
567wavelengthλmetrem
6work functionWjouleJ

 

Questions by topic

We’d like to thank Mr S Bryce for providing these questions sorted by the topic.

WORDPDF
Kinematic relationshipsKinematic relationships
Angular MotionAngular Motion
Rotational DynamicsRotational Dynamics
GravitationGravitation
General RelativityGeneral Relativity
Introduction to Quantum TheoryIntroduction to Quantum Theory
Stellar PhysicsStellar Physics
Simple Harmonic MotionSimple Harmonic Motion
WavesWaves
Particles from SpaceParticles from Space
Polarisation
Polarisation
InterferenceInterference

Signature


Basis for Cue Cards

Hi Folks! I had planned to finish these before the October hols! Sorry too much on. This is as far as I’ve got and I’ll update it a.s.a.p.
If you update it let me know. I’ll put the answers into a table of 2 columns so that if you fold down the middle they can be cue cards.

Learny statements RM&A

AH definitions more

AH definitions

Going through past paper questions here is a list of the SQA recommended perfect answers
TypeYrQ No.
Answer
Trad20014 ba (OR F) is directly proportional to -x
Usual now to use -y rather than -x
Trad20015 aii(Electrostatic potential at a point) is the work done per unit charge moveing the charge from infinity to the point
Trad200111 aelectric field
vibrates in all directions in unpolarised light
vibrates in one plane only in polaried light
Trad20023 civelocity required by a body to escape earth gravitational field by reaching infinity
Trad20025 aidiffraction pattern produced by electon beam
Trad200210 ciiwavelength has incerased therfore the source is moving away from the observer
Trad20063 aiForce exerted on 1 kg (of mass) placed in the field
Trad200611 c (Path length) in oil depends on angle of incidence or thickness ∴different colours are seen due to interference
Trad20098 bOne tesla is the magnetic induction of a magnetic field in which a conductor of length one metre, carrying a current of one ampere (perpendicular) to the field is acted on by a force of one newton.
Trad20099 aiDivision of amplitude is when some of the light reflects from the top of the air wedge and some is transmitted/refracted into the air. OR Some of the light is reflected from a surface of a new material/medium and some of the light is transmitted/refracted into the new material/medium.
Trad200910 aA stationary wave is caused by interference effects between the incident and reflected sound.
Trad200910 bThe antinodes of the pattern are areas of maximum displacement/amplitude/disturbance The nodes of the pattern are areas of minimum/zero displacement/amplitude/disturbance
Trad20104 aTotal angular momentum before (an event) = total angular momentum after (an event) in the absence of external torques
Trad20106 biiE-field is zero inside a hollow conductor. E-field has inverse square dependence outside the conductor.
Trad201011 aunpolarised light => Electric field vector oscillates or vibrates in all planes polarised light => Electric field vector oscillates or vibrates in one plane
Trad20143 aiThe (minimum) velocity/speed that a mass must have to escape the gravitational field (of a planet).
Trad20144 aiThe unbalanced force/ acceleration is proportional to the displacement of the object and act in the opposite direction.
Rev20144 aiiThe distance from the centre of a black hole at which not even light can escape. or The distance from the centre of a black hole to the event horizon.
Trad20145 diElectron orbits a nucleus / proton , Angular momentum quantised or Certain allowed orbits / discrete energy level
Rev20146 aiiPhotoelectric effect or Compton scattering Collision and transfer of energy
Rev20146 diElectron orbits a nucleus / proton (1) Angular momentum quantised (1) or Certain allowed orbits / discrete energy level
Rev20148 aThe unbalanced force/ acceleration is proportional to the displacement of the object and act in the opposite direction.
Trad201411c Wavelengths in the middle of the visible spectrum not reflected or destructively interfere. Red and blue reflected / combined to (form purple).
Trad201413 aii The brightness would gradually reduce from a maximum at 0 degrees to no intensity at 90 degrees. It would then gradually increase in intensity from 90 degrees to 180 where it would again be at a maximum
Rev20151 cThe speed of the mass will be less. Second mark for correct justification. eg: Flywheel has greater moment of inertia  Flywheel will be more difficult to start moving  Smaller acceleration of flywheel  More energy required to achieve same angular velocity.
Rev20152 aMassive objects curve spacetime Other objects follow a curved path through this (distorted) spacetime
Rev20152 cTime passes more slowly at lower altitudes (in a gravitational field).
or
Lower gravitational field strength at higher altitude.
Trad20153 biiiPotential is work done (per unit mass) moving from infinity to that point. or Infinity defined as zero potential. Work will be done by the field on the mass. or A negative amount of work will be done to move an object from infinity to any point. or WD by gravity in moving to that point or Force acts in opposite direction to r.
Rev20155 aiiiDifficult scale to read/information from diagram can only be read to 1 s.f.
Rev20156 aiForce acting on (acceleration of) object is directly proportional to and in the opposite direction to its displacement. (from equilibrium)
Rev20157 aiil reduced (or f increased) for X-rays or >E transferred
D x reduced for X-rays
since D x D p ³ h/4 p
D p increases
Rev20157 bsince DEDt³ h/4 p
Borrowing energy for a short period of time allows particles to escape
Rev20158 aiTwo sets of coherent waves are necessary (for an interference pattern) or (Interference patterns can be produced by) Division of wavefront.
Rev20159 aiForce acts on particle at right angles to the direction of its velocity/motion or a central force on particle.
Rev20159 b(Component of) velocity at right angles to field/ v sin θ, results in circular motion/central force. (Component of) velocity parallel to field/ v cosθ is constant/no unbalance force (in this direction).
Trad20159 biMagnetic fields/induction are equal in magnitude (½) and opposite in direction
Rev201510 aiForce exerted per (unit) charge is constant at any point in the field
Rev201510 aivAny suitable answer eg  Systematic uncertainty in measuring d or V  Alignment of metre stick  The flame has a finite thickness so cannot get exactly to the zero point.  Factors causing field to be non-uniform.  A p.d. across the resistor for all readings.  Poor calibration of instruments measuring V or d.
Rev201510 bDeflection is less. E is less. Force/acceleration is less
Rev201512 biiiRate of change of current/magnetic field is at its maximum
Trad20165 aiFrames of reference that are accelerating (with respect to an inertial frame)
Trad20165 aiiIt is impossible to tell the difference between the effects of gravity and acceleration.
Trad20168 aiiThe precise position of a particle/ system and its momentum cannot both be known at the same instant. OR If the uncertainty in the energy of the
particle is reduced, the minimum
uncertainty in the lifetime of the
particle will increase (or vice-versa).
Trad201610 aidisplacement is proportional to and in the opposite direction to the acceleration

Signature


Stellar Physics

Here is a great little video- what do you expect from the IoP?

https://www.youtube.com/The Life Cycle of Stars

Good Morning campers, on this dreich Scottish Morning, after a bus trip from home to school, where the driver was going for the Formula 1 Bus record, I was delighted to take my mind off the journey with an excellent programme of lessons on the Stellar Physics. Following this course allows you to go at your own pace and cover what you need.

Chapter 4: by Dr. Christopher Palma

If you need more info on Log graphs try this Khan Academy Video.