An adaptation of Tom Balanowski’s notes by Mr Bailey. This is a useful guide to teachers preparing students for their AH Physics Project. PLANNING is the KEY.
I am grateful to Ms K Ward from George Heriot’s School for trawling through the new and old curriculum and recording the changes. Thanks also for allowing me to reproduce it here.
Old assessment: 100 mark question paper, 30 mark project, plus pass all the units
New assessment: 155 mark question paper, scaled to 120, 40 mark project (hence project is 25%)
Changes to content:
The content is no longer divided into ‘mandatory course key areas’, ‘suggested learning activities’, and ‘exemplification of key areas’. There is simply a list of the course contents.
Where the wording has changed but I don’t see any real difference, I have said ‘no change’.
Kinematic relationships – no change
Angular motion – derivation of centripetal acceleration equation is gone
Rotational dynamics – no change
– ‘Conversion between astronomical units (AU) and metres and between light-years (ly) and metres’ – is new
– ‘Consideration of the energy required by a satellite to move from one orbit to another’ – is gone
– ‘Knowledge that the escape velocity from the event horizon of a black hole is equal to the speed of light’ – is new
Specific example of a p-p chain is now given
Hertzprung-Russell section is rewritten more clearly.
Quanta and Waves
Introduction to quantum theory – no change
Particles from space
– ‘Knowledge of the interaction of the solar wind with Earth’s magnetic field’ – is gone. New document only mentions composition of solar wind. Helical motion of charged particles is still there though, so it might not really matter.
Simple harmonic motion (SHM)– no change
Waves – no change
Relationship for interference due to division of amplitude is now specified,
opd=mλ or (m+1/2) λ where m=0,1,2…
Polarisation – no change
– ‘Knowledge of Millikan’s experimental method for determining the charge on an electron’ – this was in ‘exemplification’ before but is now specifically required knowledge
– ‘Comparison of gravitational, electrostatic, magnetic, and nuclear forces in terms of their relative strength and range’ – the words in bold are new
– ‘Knowledge that, in an RC circuit, an uncharged capacitor can be considered to be fully
charged after a time approximately equal to 5τ. Knowledge that, in an RC circuit, a fully charged capacitor can be considered to be fully discharged after a time approximately equal to 5τ.’ – is new
Electromagnetic radiation– no change
Knowledge and use of appropriate units, prefixes and scientific notation
– ‘Absolute uncertainty should normally be rounded to one significant figure. In some instances, a second significant figure may be retained.’ – the words in bold are new. It does not specify the instances in which a second figure may be retained.
– ‘Knowledge that, when uncertainties in a single measurement are combined, an uncertainty can be ignored if it is less than one third of one of the other uncertainties in the measurement’ – is new
– ‘Knowledge that, when uncertainties in measured values are combined, a fractional/percentage uncertainty in a measured value can be ignored if it is less than one third of the fractional/percentage uncertainty in another measured value’ – is new
– The equation for the uncertainty in a value raised to a power is now given:
Evaluation and significance of experimental uncertainties
– This short section is new
The AH today were working in 3 groups to research via practicals and notes about SHM. The task is given below. Well done to Morford and Hodgson who created the following from their practical, with very little assistance. Their results were so good I thought I’d share them.
Mr Morford wroteMorford & Hodgson (2019)
“These graphs are from our recent experiment to determine the effect of damping on an oscillating mass. A mass was hung from a spring over an Alba Ranger ultrasound device. We then analysed our measurements using excel and graphed our results to find the decay due to damping.”
This was the task for the class and my thanks to the IoP for their Practical Physics lessons and to the other places referenced for some great practical techniques. I will neaten this post later, but I promised Morford and Hodgson that I would post tonight!
Hopefully I can collate the rest of the groups information soon.
By the end of the lesson you should……
- You to have the spring constant for two of the springs by two different methods.
- A graph of d v t, v v t, and a v t
- A value of the period of spring for various masses
- Discovered the effect of amplitude on the period Found the effect of damping (so find out what that is)
Investigating a mass-on-spring oscillator
A mass suspended on a spring will oscillate after being displaced. The period of oscillation is affected by the amount of mass and the stiffness of the spring. This experiment allows the period, displacement, velocity and acceleration to be investigated by datalogging the output from a motion sensor. It is an example of simple harmonic motion.
Measurement of period
Period and Amplitude Observe that the period appears to be independent of amplitude.
Effect of mass
A straight line is the usual result, showing that the period squared is proportional to the mass.
Velocity and acceleration
A plot of the resulting data shows a ‘velocity vs. time’ graph. Note that the new graph is also sinusoidal. However, compared with the ‘distance vs. time’ graph, there is a phase difference – the velocity is a maximum when the displacement is zero, and vice versa.
A similar gradient calculation based on the ‘velocity vs. time’ graph yields an ‘acceleration vs. time’ graph. Comparing this with the original ‘distance vs. time’ graph shows a phase difference of 180°. This indicates that the acceleration is always opposite in direction to the displacement. Teaching notes
To find the force constant of a helical spring by plotting a graph between load and extension.
Aim: To find the effect of damping on an oscillating spring
Aim: To find the effect of mass on an oscillating spring
Aim: To use the formula for an oscillating spring to find m or k etc
I’ve put together, with Mrs Mac’s help, a document with quantity, symbol, unit and unit symbol so that you know the meaning of the terms in the Relationships Sheet. It is in EXCEL so that you can sort it by course, quantity or symbol.
Quantity, Symbol, Units the excel sheet
Quantity, Symbol, Units a pdf sheet sorted by course and then alphabetical by quantity.
This is the same information in readily available Tablepress form. If you click on the Higher tab at the top it should sort by terms that you need in alphabetical order, or search for a term. Let me know if I’ve missed any.
Quantity, Symbol, Unit, Unit, Symbol N5-AH.
|N||H||A||Physical Quantity||sym||Unit||Unit Abb.|
|5||absorbed dose rate||H (dot)||gray per second gray per hour gray per year||Gys -1 Gyh -1 Gyy -1|
|5||6||7||acceleration||a||metre per second per second||m s -2|
|5||6||7||acceleration due to gravity||g||metre per second per second||m s -2|
|5||6||7||area||A||square metre||m 2|
|5||6||7||average speed||v (bar)||metre per second||m s -1|
|5||6||7||average velocity||v (bar)||metre per second||m s -1|
|5||6||7||change of speed||∆v||metre per second||m s -1|
|5||6||7||change of velocity||∆v||metre per second||m s -1|
|5||count rate||-||counts per second (counts per minute)||-|
|5||6||7||distance||d||metre, light year||m , ly|
|5||6||7||distance, depth, height||d or h||metre||m|
|5||6||7||electric charge||Q or q||coulomb||C|
|5||equivalent dose rate||H (dot)||sievert per second sievert per hour sievert per year||Svs -1 Svh -1 Svy -1|
|5||6||7||final velocity||v||metre per second||m s -1|
|5||6||7||force, tension, upthrust, thrust||F||newton||N|
|5||6||7||gravitational field strength||g||newton per kilogram||N kg -1|
|5||6||7||gravitational potential energy||E p||joule||J|
|5||half-life||t 1/2||second (minute, hour, day, year)||s|
|5||6||7||initial speed||u||metre per second||m/s|
|5||6||7||initial velocity||u||metre per second||m s -1|
|5||number of nuclei decaying||N||-||-|
|5||6||7||pressure||P or p||pascal||Pa|
|5||radiation weighting factor||wR||-||-|
|5||6||7||specific heat capacity||c||joule per kilogram per degree Celsius||Jkg-1 °C -1|
|5||6||specific latent heat||l||joule per kilogram||Jkg -1|
|5||6||7||speed of light in a vacuum||c||metre per second||m s -1|
|5||6||7||speed, final speed||v||metre per second||ms -1|
|5||6||7||speed, velocity, final velocity||v||metre per second||m s-1|
|5||6||7||voltage, potential difference||V||volt||V|
|5||6||7||work done||W or E W||joule||J|
|7||angular acceleration||a||radian per second per second||rad s -2|
|7||angular frequency||ω||radian per second||rad s -1|
|7||angular momentum||L||kilogram metre squared per second||kg m2 s -1|
|7||angular velocity, |
final angular velocity
|ω||radian per second||rad s-1|
|7||apparent brightness||b||Watts per square metre||Wm-2|
|density||ρ||kilogram per cubic metre||kg m-3|
|7||displacement||s or x or y||metre||m|
|6||7||electric field strength||E||newton per coulomb|
volts per metre
|N C -1
|6||7||electromotive force (e.m.f)||E or ε||volt||V|
|6||energy level||E 1 , E 2 , etc||joule||J|
|focal length of a lens||f||metre||m|
|6||frequency of source||fs||hertz||Hz|
|6||7||grating to screen distance||D||metre||m|
|7||gravitational potential||U or V||joule per kilogram||J kg-1|
kilogram metre per second
|7||induced e.m.f.||E or ε||volt||V|
|7||initial angular velocity||ω o||radian per second||rad s-1|
|input energy||E i||joule||J|
|input voltage||V 1 or V2||volt||V|
|input voltage||V i||volt||V|
|6||7||irradiance||I||watt per square metre||W m-1|
|7||moment of inertia||I||kilogram metre squared||kg m2|
|6||7||momentum||p||kilogram metre per second||kg m s-1|
|6||number of photons per second per cross sectional area||N||-||-|
|number of turns on primary coil||n p||-||-|
|number of turns on secondary coil||n s||-||-|
|6||observed wavelength||λ observed||metre||m|
|output energy||E o||joule||J|
|output power||P o||watt||W|
|output voltage||V o||volt||V|
|6||peak voltage||V peak||volt||V|
|6||7||Planck’s constant||h||joule second||Js|
|7||polarising angle |
|power (of a lens)||P||dioptre||D|
|7||Power per unit area||Watts per square metre||Wm-2|
|primary current||I p||ampere||A|
|7||radial acceleration||ar||metre per second per second||m s-2|
|6||root mean square current||I rms||ampere||A|
|6||root mean square voltage||Vrms||volt||V|
|7||rotational kinetic energy||Erot||joule||J|
|7||tangential acceleration||at||metre per second per second||m s-2|
|7||uncertainty in Energy||∆E||joule||J|
|7||uncertainty in momentum||∆px||kilogram metre per second||kgms-1|
|7||uncertainty in position||∆x||metre||m|
|7||uncertainty in time||∆t||second||s|
|6||velocity of observer||vo||metre per second||m s-1|
|6||velocity of source||vs||metre per second||m s-1|
|voltage gain||Ao or V gain||-||-|
We’d like to thank Mr S Bryce for providing these questions sorted by the topic.
Hi Folks! I had planned to finish these before the October hols! Sorry too much on. This is as far as I’ve got and I’ll update it a.s.a.p.
If you update it let me know. I’ll put the answers into a table of 2 columns so that if you fold down the middle they can be cue cards.
AH definitionsGoing through past paper questions here is a list of the SQA recommended perfect answers
|Trad||2001||4 b||a (OR F) is directly proportional to -x
Usual now to use -y rather than -x
|Trad||2001||5 aii||(Electrostatic potential at a point) is the work done per unit charge moveing the charge from infinity to the point|
|Trad||2001||11 a||electric field
vibrates in all directions in unpolarised light
vibrates in one plane only in polaried light
|Trad||2002||3 ci||velocity required by a body to escape earth gravitational field by reaching infinity|
|Trad||2002||5 ai||diffraction pattern produced by electon beam|
|Trad||2002||10 cii||wavelength has incerased therfore the source is moving away from the observer|
|Trad||2006||3 ai||Force exerted on 1 kg (of mass) placed in the field|
|Trad||2006||11 c||(Path length) in oil depends on angle of incidence or thickness ∴different colours are seen due to interference|
|Trad||2009||8 b||One tesla is the magnetic induction of a magnetic field in which a conductor of length one metre, carrying a current of one ampere (perpendicular) to the field is acted on by a force of one newton.|
|Trad||2009||9 ai||Division of amplitude is when some of the light reflects from the top of the air wedge and some is transmitted/refracted into the air. OR Some of the light is reflected from a surface of a new material/medium and some of the light is transmitted/refracted into the new material/medium.|
|Trad||2009||10 a||A stationary wave is caused by interference effects between the incident and reflected sound.|
|Trad||2009||10 b||The antinodes of the pattern are areas of maximum displacement/amplitude/disturbance The nodes of the pattern are areas of minimum/zero displacement/amplitude/disturbance|
|Trad||2010||4 a||Total angular momentum before (an event) = total angular momentum after (an event) in the absence of external torques|
|Trad||2010||6 bii||E-field is zero inside a hollow conductor. E-field has inverse square dependence outside the conductor.|
|Trad||2010||11 a||unpolarised light => Electric field vector oscillates or vibrates in all planes polarised light => Electric field vector oscillates or vibrates in one plane|
|Trad||2014||3 ai||The (minimum) velocity/speed that a mass must have to escape the gravitational field (of a planet).|
|Trad||2014||4 ai||The unbalanced force/ acceleration is proportional to the displacement of the object and act in the opposite direction.|
|Rev||2014||4 aii||The distance from the centre of a black hole at which not even light can escape. or The distance from the centre of a black hole to the event horizon.|
|Trad||2014||5 di||Electron orbits a nucleus / proton , Angular momentum quantised or Certain allowed orbits / discrete energy level|
|Rev||2014||6 aii||Photoelectric effect or Compton scattering Collision and transfer of energy|
|Rev||2014||6 di||Electron orbits a nucleus / proton (1) Angular momentum quantised (1) or Certain allowed orbits / discrete energy level|
|Rev||2014||8 a||The unbalanced force/ acceleration is proportional to the displacement of the object and act in the opposite direction.|
|Trad||2014||11c||Wavelengths in the middle of the visible spectrum not reflected or destructively interfere. Red and blue reflected / combined to (form purple).|
|Trad||2014||13 aii||The brightness would gradually reduce from a maximum at 0 degrees to no intensity at 90 degrees. It would then gradually increase in intensity from 90 degrees to 180 where it would again be at a maximum|
|Rev||2015||1 c||The speed of the mass will be less. Second mark for correct justification. eg: Flywheel has greater moment of inertia Flywheel will be more difficult to start moving Smaller acceleration of flywheel More energy required to achieve same angular velocity.|
|Rev||2015||2 a||Massive objects curve spacetime Other objects follow a curved path through this (distorted) spacetime|
|Rev||2015||2 c||Time passes more slowly at lower altitudes (in a gravitational field).
Lower gravitational field strength at higher altitude.
|Trad||2015||3 biii||Potential is work done (per unit mass) moving from infinity to that point. or Infinity defined as zero potential. Work will be done by the field on the mass. or A negative amount of work will be done to move an object from infinity to any point. or WD by gravity in moving to that point or Force acts in opposite direction to r.|
|Rev||2015||5 aiii||Difficult scale to read/information from diagram can only be read to 1 s.f.|
|Rev||2015||6 ai||Force acting on (acceleration of) object is directly proportional to and in the opposite direction to its displacement. (from equilibrium)|
|Rev||2015||7 aii||l reduced (or f increased) for X-rays or >E transferred
D x reduced for X-rays
since D x D p ³ h/4 p
D p increases
|Rev||2015||7 b||since DEDt³ h/4 p
Borrowing energy for a short period of time allows particles to escape
|Rev||2015||8 ai||Two sets of coherent waves are necessary (for an interference pattern) or (Interference patterns can be produced by) Division of wavefront.|
|Rev||2015||9 ai||Force acts on particle at right angles to the direction of its velocity/motion or a central force on particle.|
|Rev||2015||9 b||(Component of) velocity at right angles to field/ v sin θ, results in circular motion/central force. (Component of) velocity parallel to field/ v cosθ is constant/no unbalance force (in this direction).|
|Trad||2015||9 bi||Magnetic fields/induction are equal in magnitude (½) and opposite in direction|
|Rev||2015||10 ai||Force exerted per (unit) charge is constant at any point in the field|
|Rev||2015||10 aiv||Any suitable answer eg Systematic uncertainty in measuring d or V Alignment of metre stick The flame has a finite thickness so cannot get exactly to the zero point. Factors causing field to be non-uniform. A p.d. across the resistor for all readings. Poor calibration of instruments measuring V or d.|
|Rev||2015||10 b||Deflection is less. E is less. Force/acceleration is less|
|Rev||2015||12 biii||Rate of change of current/magnetic field is at its maximum|
|Trad||2016||5 ai||Frames of reference that are accelerating (with respect to an inertial frame)|
|Trad||2016||5 aii||It is impossible to tell the difference between the effects of gravity and acceleration.|
|Trad||2016||8 aii||The precise position of a particle/ system and its momentum cannot both be known at the same instant. OR If the uncertainty in the energy of the
particle is reduced, the minimum
uncertainty in the lifetime of the
particle will increase (or vice-versa).
|Trad||2016||10 ai||displacement is proportional to and in the opposite direction to the acceleration|