## Relationships

Using John Sharkey’s Flash Learning this video covers the required Virtual CfE Advanced Higher Physics Equations. NB there are some updates to equations since this material was produced.

Here is a little video to remind you of the relationships required at AH. See below for updates

## Quanta & Waves Resources

Resources: Notes and video (flash learning AH CfE Virtual Physics)

Read the notes, watch the video and answer the questions below, in a way that makes them form a good note about the subject.

1. What three pieces of key evidence didn’t fit with classical physics?
2. In 1911 Rutherford put forward his model of the atom, a) State the important features of this model b) What provides the centripetal force for the electrons in this model?
4. State two changes with the black body radiation curve as temperature increases.
5. Describe the UV catastrophe.
6. Who helped solve the UV catastrophe and in what ways?
7. Which piece of the photoelectric effect experiment demonstrates that energy is not transferred as waves?
8. From the photoelectric effect state the link between the energy of the photon and a) the frequency of the radiation, b) the wavelength
9. What did Bohr postulate about angular momentum?
10. State the formula for angular momentum in Bohr’s model of the atom, (define each term)
11. State the limits for the Bohr model of the atom
12. Explain the observation made by GP Thomson in 1920 which led to further debate on the issue.
13. What did de Broglie imply was the link between electrons as waves and particles?
14. Explain the confusion caused when looking at the double slit experiment with single particles.
15. What happens when you observe an electron passing through the slit?
16. What two quantities cannot be measured together with much certainty and why?

Here is a nice little video on Standing Waves. Standing waves are formed when a wave interferes with its reflection to produce nodes and antinodes.

…..and here is the explanation for the standing wave video

Below are some cracking resources from Sally Weatherly, find her here!

## Resources

Below are some accumulated resources. Thanks to all of those who produced them.

ah-quanta-summary notes problems-2015 Thanks to RGC for these notes

quanta-and-waves-student-booklet-i-ror Thanks to Mr Orr for these.

Quanta and Waves Student booklet I ROR pdf version of the above

4.2 Energy changes during simple harmonic motion

ah waves summary notes and problems 2013 RGC notes thanks for these

PhysicsQuantaandWaves_tcm4-726389 Andrew McGuigan Numerical Questions

ah quanta summary notes and problems 2015 LA

ah quanta tutorial solutions 2015

ah uncertainties experiments 2013

ah waves summary notes and problems 2013

ah waves tutorial solutions 2013

# Quanta

glossary-of-terms-table2

Properties_of_stars_and_stellar_evolution

electrons-exhibit-both-wave

cosmic-rays A quick research task on cosmic rays.

solar-wind-magnetosphere

Scientist think that the Earth is due a “Magnetic Flip” Research this starting at the link below and then answer the AH Revised question on this from the 2015 Paper Q11

Here is a Radio 4 programme talking about the consequences of a polar flip. If you want to view further programmes click on the link below.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/curious case of Rutherford and Fry

soho_fact_sheet

The number of sunspots is an indication of solar activity. Research this and then complete the AH Revised 2013 paper Q6.

quantum-mechanics

unit-2-part-1-quanta-notes

Quantum Tunnelling – strange but true

Background

What is the Uncertainty Principle? Minute Physics

Quantum Tunnelling is the process by which a particle gets across a barrier that it cannot classically pass.

It is related to wave-particle duality in that it is a result of the wave nature of a particle.

The probability of the particles getting through the barrier drops exponentially with the thickness of the barrier.

“>What is Quantum Tunnelling? Minute Physics

How to walk through walls- Quantum Tunnelling

Is Quantum Tunnelling faster than the speed of light?

# Waves

shm-intro

unit-2-part-2-waves-notes

shm INTRO

PhysicsQuantaandWaves_tcm4-726389

Tutorial AH Revised Booklet v2

AH (SHM)

December 2020

## Project 2019+

An adaptation of Tom Balanowski’s notes by Mr Bailey. This is a useful guide to teachers preparing students for their AH Physics Project. PLANNING is the KEY.

If you are not familiar with Excel can I recommend you spending a bit of time looking over the post in the BGE section (link below). I’ll add a further advanced part for you below.

Other packages are available and some are more robust such as R but I am not sure whether I will introduce that to you now.

Plotting graphs in Excel is coming this way soon!

## Changes in AH from 2019

Firstly from me

check out the prefixes you need. Notice anything different?

I am grateful to Ms K Ward from George Heriot’s School for trawling through the new and old curriculum and recording the changes. Thanks also for allowing me to reproduce it here.

###### Assessment

Old assessment: 100 mark question paper, 30 mark project, plus pass all the units

New assessment: 155 mark question paper, scaled to 120, 40 mark project (hence project is 25%)

#### Changes to content:

The content is no longer divided into ‘mandatory course key areas’, ‘suggested learning activities’, and ‘exemplification of key areas’.  There is simply a list of the course contents.

Where the wording has changed but I don’t see any real difference, I have said ‘no change’.

###### RMA

Kinematic relationships – no change

Angular motion – derivation of centripetal acceleration equation is gone

Rotational dynamics – no change

##### Gravitation

–       ‘Conversion between astronomical units (AU) and metres and between light-years (ly) and metres’ – is new

–       ‘Consideration of the energy required by a satellite to move from one orbit to another’ – is gone

###### General Relativity

–       ‘Knowledge that the escape velocity from the event horizon of a black hole is equal to the speed of light’ – is new

###### Stellar physics

Specific example of  a p-p chain is now given

Hertzprung-Russell section is rewritten more clearly.

###### Quanta and Waves

Introduction to quantum theory – no change

###### Particles from space

–       ‘Knowledge of the interaction of the solar wind with Earth’s magnetic field’ – is gone.  New document only mentions composition of solar wind.  Helical motion of charged particles is still there though, so it might not really matter.

Simple harmonic motion (SHM)– no change

Waves – no change

###### Interference

Relationship for interference due to division of amplitude is now specified,
opd=mλ or (m+1/2) λ where m=0,1,2…

Polarisation – no change

#### Electromagnetism

###### Fields

–       ‘Knowledge of Millikan’s experimental method for determining the charge on an electron’ – this was in ‘exemplification’ before but is now specifically required knowledge

–       ‘Comparison of gravitational, electrostatic, magnetic, and nuclear forces in terms of their relative strength and range’ – the words in bold are new

###### Circuits

–       ‘Knowledge that, in an RC circuit, an uncharged capacitor can be considered to be fully

charged after a time approximately equal to 5τ.  Knowledge that, in an RC circuit, a fully charged capacitor can be considered to be fully discharged after a time approximately equal to 5τ.’ – is new

#### Uncertainties

###### Data analysis

–       ‘Absolute uncertainty should normally be rounded to one significant figure. In some instances, a second significant figure may be retained.’ – the words in bold are new.  It does not specify the instances in which a second figure may be retained.

–       ‘Knowledge that, when uncertainties in a single measurement are combined, an uncertainty can be ignored if it is less than one third of one of the other uncertainties in the measurement’ – is new

–       ‘Knowledge that, when uncertainties in measured values are combined, a fractional/percentage uncertainty in a measured value can be ignored if it is less than one third of the fractional/percentage uncertainty in another measured value’ – is new

–       The equation for the uncertainty in a value raised to a power is now given:

#### Evaluation and significance of experimental uncertainties

–       This short section is new

## SHM Practicals

The AH today were working in 3 groups to research via practicals and notes about SHM. The task is given below. Well done to Morford and Hodgson who created the following from their practical, with very little assistance. Their results were so good I thought I’d share them.

Mr Morford wrote
“These graphs are from our recent experiment to determine the effect of damping on an oscillating mass. A mass was hung from a spring over an Alba Ranger ultrasound device. We then analysed our measurements using excel and graphed our results to find the decay due to damping.”

Morford & Hodgson (2019)

This was the task for the class and my thanks to the IoP for their Practical Physics lessons and to the other places referenced for some great practical techniques. I will neaten this post later, but I promised Morford and Hodgson that I would post tonight!

Hopefully I can collate the rest of the groups information soon.

By the end of the lesson you should……

• You to have the spring constant for two of the springs by two different methods.
• A graph of d against t, v against t, and a against t
• A value of the period of spring for various masses
• Discovered the effect of amplitude on the period Found the effect of damping (so find out what that is)

https://www.webassign.net/question_assets/ncsucalcphysmechl3/lab_7_1/manual.html

https://www.cyberphysics.co.uk/topics/shm/springs.htm

http://practicalphysics.org/investigating-mass-spring-oscillator.html

## 2020

Despite Covid-19 the intrepid AH students have been showing damping with a pendulum bob and tracker. The original movie has still to be analysed by our friends from Annan

Now if we can add Atwal, Burns, Carson and Morrin’s tracker we can have a full set for 2020 and you can look back with fondness at your time in AH, despite all the distancing.

#### Investigating a mass-on-spring oscillator

##### Demonstration

A mass suspended on a spring will oscillate after being displaced. The period of oscillation is affected by the amount of mass and the stiffness of the spring. This experiment allows the period, displacement, velocity and acceleration to be investigated by datalogging the output from a motion sensor. It is an example of simple harmonic motion.

Analysis
Measurement of period
Period and Amplitude Observe that the period appears to be independent of amplitude.

Effect of mass
A straight line is the usual result, showing that the period squared is proportional to the mass.

Velocity and acceleration
A plot of the resulting data shows a ‘velocity vs. time’ graph. Note that the new graph is also sinusoidal. However, compared with the ‘distance vs. time’ graph, there is a phase difference – the velocity is a maximum when the displacement is zero, and vice versa.

A similar gradient calculation based on the ‘velocity vs. time’ graph yields an ‘acceleration vs. time’ graph. Comparing this with the original ‘distance vs. time’ graph shows a phase difference of 180°. This indicates that the acceleration is always opposite in direction to the displacement. Teaching notes

Aim: To find the force constant of a helical spring by plotting a graph between load and extension.

Aim: To find the effect of damping on an oscillating spring

Aim: To find the effect of mass on an oscillating spring

Aim: To use the formula for an oscillating spring to find m or k etc

## Electromagnetism

PhysicsElectromagnetismAH_tcm4-726384 Questions on the electromagnetism topic

ah electromagnetism summary notes 2013 Robert Gordon’s College brilliant notes

ah electromagnetism problems 2013

AH (Electrical Phenomena)

Unit 3 – 1 Fields

CircuitsNotes4

These are great little notes by F Kastelein on Unit 3 Electromagnetism. A lovely summary

#### More video clips from John Sharkey’s Collections

Here is a great little video on Lenz’ Law called Michael’s Toys

## Homework for 6th Sept

Complete

1. NAH 2016 pp Q1, 2
2. NAH 2017 pp Q1, 2, 3
3. NAH 2018 pp Q1, 2, 3
4. Complete all tutorials, mark them and hand them in for checking
5. Complete the SCHOLAR tests for the first 4 parts of Unit 1
6. Revise for an Assessment on Rotational Motion on 10th Sept.

## SQA Exam

SQA Physics Exam. This is what you’re working towards!

Afternoon in the Assembly Hall

Today is what you’ve worked for. Give it your best shot.

Don’t be late

Bring your

• pen
• pencil
• ruler (30 cm)
• eraser
• calculator
• protractor
• …..and go to the loo before hand!

## Basis for Cue Cards

Hi Folks! I had planned to finish these before the October hols! Sorry too much on. This is as far as I’ve got and I’ll update it a.s.a.p.
If you update it let me know. I’ll put the answers into a table of 2 columns so that if you fold down the middle they can be cue cards.

Learny statements RM&A

AH definitions more

## AH definitions

Going through past paper questions here is a list of the SQA recommended perfect answers
TypeYrQ No.
Trad20014 ba (OR F) is directly proportional to -x
Usual now to use -y rather than -x
Trad20015 aii(Electrostatic potential at a point) is the work done per unit charge moveing the charge from infinity to the point
vibrates in all directions in unpolarised light
vibrates in one plane only in polaried light
Trad20023 civelocity required by a body to escape earth gravitational field by reaching infinity
Trad20025 aidiffraction pattern produced by electon beam
Trad200210 ciiwavelength has incerased therfore the source is moving away from the observer
Trad20063 aiForce exerted on 1 kg (of mass) placed in the field
Trad200611 c (Path length) in oil depends on angle of incidence or thickness ∴different colours are seen due to interference
Trad20098 bOne tesla is the magnetic induction of a magnetic field in which a conductor of length one metre, carrying a current of one ampere (perpendicular) to the field is acted on by a force of one newton.
Trad20099 aiDivision of amplitude is when some of the light reflects from the top of the air wedge and some is transmitted/refracted into the air. OR Some of the light is reflected from a surface of a new material/medium and some of the light is transmitted/refracted into the new material/medium.
Trad200910 aA stationary wave is caused by interference effects between the incident and reflected sound.
Trad200910 bThe antinodes of the pattern are areas of maximum displacement/amplitude/disturbance The nodes of the pattern are areas of minimum/zero displacement/amplitude/disturbance
Trad20104 aTotal angular momentum before (an event) = total angular momentum after (an event) in the absence of external torques
Trad20106 biiE-field is zero inside a hollow conductor. E-field has inverse square dependence outside the conductor.
Trad201011 aunpolarised light => Electric field vector oscillates or vibrates in all planes polarised light => Electric field vector oscillates or vibrates in one plane
Trad20143 aiThe (minimum) velocity/speed that a mass must have to escape the gravitational field (of a planet).
Trad20144 aiThe unbalanced force/ acceleration is proportional to the displacement of the object and act in the opposite direction.
Rev20144 aiiThe distance from the centre of a black hole at which not even light can escape. or The distance from the centre of a black hole to the event horizon.
Trad20145 diElectron orbits a nucleus / proton , Angular momentum quantised or Certain allowed orbits / discrete energy level
Rev20146 aiiPhotoelectric effect or Compton scattering Collision and transfer of energy
Rev20146 diElectron orbits a nucleus / proton (1) Angular momentum quantised (1) or Certain allowed orbits / discrete energy level
Rev20148 aThe unbalanced force/ acceleration is proportional to the displacement of the object and act in the opposite direction.
Trad201411c Wavelengths in the middle of the visible spectrum not reflected or destructively interfere. Red and blue reflected / combined to (form purple).
Trad201413 aii The brightness would gradually reduce from a maximum at 0 degrees to no intensity at 90 degrees. It would then gradually increase in intensity from 90 degrees to 180 where it would again be at a maximum
Rev20151 cThe speed of the mass will be less. Second mark for correct justification. eg: Flywheel has greater moment of inertia  Flywheel will be more difficult to start moving  Smaller acceleration of flywheel  More energy required to achieve same angular velocity.
Rev20152 aMassive objects curve spacetime Other objects follow a curved path through this (distorted) spacetime
Rev20152 cTime passes more slowly at lower altitudes (in a gravitational field).
or
Lower gravitational field strength at higher altitude.
Trad20153 biiiPotential is work done (per unit mass) moving from infinity to that point. or Infinity defined as zero potential. Work will be done by the field on the mass. or A negative amount of work will be done to move an object from infinity to any point. or WD by gravity in moving to that point or Force acts in opposite direction to r.
Rev20155 aiiiDifficult scale to read/information from diagram can only be read to 1 s.f.
Rev20156 aiForce acting on (acceleration of) object is directly proportional to and in the opposite direction to its displacement. (from equilibrium)
Rev20157 aiil reduced (or f increased) for X-rays or >E transferred
D x reduced for X-rays
since D x D p ³ h/4 p
D p increases
Rev20157 bsince DEDt³ h/4 p
Borrowing energy for a short period of time allows particles to escape
Rev20158 aiTwo sets of coherent waves are necessary (for an interference pattern) or (Interference patterns can be produced by) Division of wavefront.
Rev20159 aiForce acts on particle at right angles to the direction of its velocity/motion or a central force on particle.
Rev20159 b(Component of) velocity at right angles to field/ v sin θ, results in circular motion/central force. (Component of) velocity parallel to field/ v cosθ is constant/no unbalance force (in this direction).
Trad20159 biMagnetic fields/induction are equal in magnitude (½) and opposite in direction
Rev201510 aiForce exerted per (unit) charge is constant at any point in the field
Rev201510 aivAny suitable answer eg  Systematic uncertainty in measuring d or V  Alignment of metre stick  The flame has a finite thickness so cannot get exactly to the zero point.  Factors causing field to be non-uniform.  A p.d. across the resistor for all readings.  Poor calibration of instruments measuring V or d.
Rev201510 bDeflection is less. E is less. Force/acceleration is less
Rev201512 biiiRate of change of current/magnetic field is at its maximum
Trad20165 aiFrames of reference that are accelerating (with respect to an inertial frame)
Trad20165 aiiIt is impossible to tell the difference between the effects of gravity and acceleration.
Trad20168 aiiThe precise position of a particle/ system and its momentum cannot both be known at the same instant. OR If the uncertainty in the energy of the
particle is reduced, the minimum
uncertainty in the lifetime of the
particle will increase (or vice-versa).
Trad201610 aidisplacement is proportional to and in the opposite direction to the acceleration